Defense in distant lanes / Realii / Nezavisimaya Gazeta

Ensuring security in outer space is the main vector for the development of space forces

Radar “Voronezh” see everything in space around Russia. Photo from www.mil.ru

In the current stage of development of the armed forces of the Russian Federation, the guarantor of the security of our state in outer space is the air forces and the space forces that are part of them. At the same time, the key role is assigned to the space forces, which control missile-prone areas in the northern hemisphere, conduct reconnaissance of outer space, launch space rockets with payloads into space near Earth and also control the domestic orbit. group of spaceships in the stage of orbital flight.

The tendency of the leading world powers to actively explore outer space, the desire to create multisatellar constellations, the active position of individual countries in the militarization of outer space dictates the need to modernize existing ones and create new, more advanced ways to ensure Russian Federation security in and from outer space.

The main operational unit within the space forces is the Special Forces Aerospace Forces 15th Army (15th Army of VKS OSN), which includes military units located from the Kaliningrad region to the Kamchatka Territory, from Vorkuta to Evpatoria, and organizationally consolidated into three formations the main missile attack warning center, the space reconnaissance center and the Russian Defense Ministry’s main testing center named after GS Titov.

In accordance with the state armament program for the period up to 2027, the development and improvement of the funds for the 15th Army in VKS OSN takes place in three main areas: the development of a missile attack warning system (SPRN); development of the Outer Space Control System (SCCP); development of space systems and complexes for military and dual purposes.

Currently, the PRN system includes command posts and radar stations over the horizon located along the perimeter of the Russian Federation, providing a double-band continuous radar field around the borders of the Russian Federation, as well as an orbital grouping of spacecraft, and monitoring ballistic missile and missile launches from all missile ranges. continuously and around the clock, in real time.

The share of modern weapons in the PRN system is more than 70%, within the framework of the State Armaments Program for the period up to 2027, this share will only increase due to the creation of new and in-depth modernizations of existing stations. In combat service as part of the early warning system, seven of the latest high-readiness (VZG) radar stations (VZG) are “Voronezh” of various wavelengths, as well as three “Daryal”, “Dnieper” and “Volga” types, undergoing planned modernization without withdrawing from combat mode.

The construction of the orbital constellation of early warning spacecraft continues, which in its existing composition successfully solves the tasks of controlling ballistic missile launch sites in the northern hemisphere. As part of the further development of early warning systems, the construction of three Voronezh-type VZG radars in the Murmansk region, the Komi Republic and the Crimean Republic is under way. Work continues to improve the accuracy properties of the system, expanding its functionality to detect different classes of ballistic missiles from operational-tactical to intercontinental.

With regard to the benefits of the new stations, I would first of all like to note that Voronezh-type radars can be built easily and quickly, as well as upgraded during operation. This is their significant difference from the radars of previous generations, which had a rigid architecture, where the design was formed during the development process and practically did not change until the end of operation.

Radar “Voronezh” is more modern, more economical, you could say, more intelligent and technologically advanced. It is not in vain that a modern radar is called a high-alert radar, it can be compared to a kind of designer, whose elements are made according to a block modular architecture, and all that remains is to mount them at the plant in the correct order. This makes it possible, if necessary, to increase the radar’s information and technical properties considerably. Previous stations were characterized by large, if not huge, size and extremely high power consumption. On VZG radar, power consumption has decreased by four to five times, and the size of the technical site on which the station is built has also decreased. At the same time, the performance characteristics of modern radars have not deteriorated compared to the previous ones, and have in some respects increased significantly.

The creation of new objects in the PRN system takes place at a high rate. For comparison: the previous generation radar was built in 10 years. Now the construction of new stations from laying the foundation to putting them into combat service takes about three years. In the long term until 2030, the development of early warning systems will enable the modernization of a number of VZG radars in combat service in the Krasnodar Territory, the Irkutsk region and the creation of new means in the Leningrad region and the Far East Federal Area with improved performance and noise immunity.

The commissioning of these stations will ensure the completion of the re-equipment of early warning systems with the new generation radar. Together with the creation of promising means to warn of a missile attack, the possibilities for the CCP system’s reconnaissance of the space situation are expanded.

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Of the 160 spacecraft in orbit
over 70% are under management
GICC MO named after GS Titov.
Photo from www.roscosmos.ru

SKKP is an integral part of the Russian air defense system and has its own characteristics. This is a complex territorially distributed information and telecommunications system based on its own specialized tools and interacting tools from organizations, the Russian Academy of Sciences, ministries and departments, designed for continuous and global assessment of the space situation both in peacetime and in wartime.

SKKP’s main tasks are the continuous analysis of the space situation, the maintenance of the main catalog of space objects, the identification of facts about a possible dangerous approach for domestic spacecraft with space objects.

Global monitoring of the near-Earth outer space situation is provided by early warning radar systems, as well as SKKP’s own radio, laser optical and optoelectronic terrestrial facilities located in the Moscow region, the Altai Territory, the Far East region, the Republic of Karachay-Cherkess and the Republic. Tajikistan.

As part of the development of SKKP, it is planned to create a network of specialized radio control systems, a number of CCP radar stations and new generation optoelectronic complexes in the Komi Republic, the Far East, Buryatia and Crimea.

With the commissioning of promising CCP facilities, the 15th Army of OSN VKS will significantly increase its combat capability in global control of space close to Earth.

As for the domestic orbital constellation of spacecraft, it is currently undergoing a process of rapid improvement and renewal. The orbital constellation of the Russian spacecraft includes more than 160 spacecraft, of which more than 70% are under the control of the Russian Ministry of Defense’s main test center, named after GS Titov. Space systems and complexes for navigation, communication, topogeodetic and meteorological purposes, remote sensing of the earth and monitoring of the situation on its surface, as well as scientific purposes, operate in orbits near the earth.

To develop the orbital constellation of spacecraft in Russia, the latest space systems and communication complexes, remote sensing of the Earth, as well as navigation vehicles of a new generation of the GLONASS system are distributed. The development of the GLONASS system enables the gradual replacement of the existing “Glonass-M” navigation satellites with the “Glonass-K” and “Glonass-K2” satellites on the domestic element component base with extended active life and reduced weight. In the future, it is planned to gradually transfer orbital space systems and complexes to small spacecraft, expand their functionality, further increase the period of active existence and improve other parameters.

Following the improvement of the domestic orbital constellation of spacecraft, the ground-based automated control complex is improved in several areas: unification of command and measurement systems; transition to separate uninhabited facilities with remote control; improvement of communication channels and data transmission; creation of mobile controls, relocated controls in container design and other areas.

The development of forces and means to ensure our country’s security in space and from space takes place against the background of the sanctions policy against the Russian Federation, which in the initial stage created some difficulties in achieving the intended goals. At the same time, we are currently successfully overcoming these difficulties, rapidly developing the domestic production of space technology and almost completely covering the needs of modern practice. It can be said with confidence that the space forces and air forces are guaranteed to provide protection for the Russian Federation in and from space.

 

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