For the first time, a man from the planet Earth went into space

Today, April 12, is World Aviation and Cosmonautics Day (International Day of Human Space Flight).

This is a special day – the day of the triumph of science and all those who work in the space industry today. As a holiday – Cosmonautics Day – in our country, it was established by decree of the Bureau of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union on April 9, 1962 and gained international status in 1968 at a conference of the International Aviation Federation.

By the way, since 2011 it has had another name – International Day of Human Space Flight. On 7 April 2011, at a special plenary session of the UN General Assembly, at the initiative of Russia, an official resolution was adopted on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the first step in the exploration of outer space. More than 60 states co-sponsored this resolution.

The flight, which lasted only 108 minutes, was a powerful breakthrough in space exploration. The name of Yuri Gagarin became widely known in the world, and the first cosmonaut himself was given the rank of major before the schedule and the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.

As you know, before a man entered a spaceship, the man’s four-legged friends were sent on a flight. In August 1960, the Soviet spacecraft “Vostok” with the dogs Belka and Strelka on board made a daily flight with return to Earth.

Photo: pixabay.com, klimkin

780 years ago, Alexander Nevsky’s army defeated the German Knights on Lake Peipsi (Battle of the Ice).

The German army included 10-12 thousand people, Alexander Nevsky had an army of 15-17 thousand. At dawn, the knights lined up in a “wedge” and moved towards the Russians along the lake’s thin spring ice. At that time, Alexander had lined up the Novgorodians with a “heel”, the back of which rested on the steep, steep eastern shore of the lake.

Equestrian groups were stationed on the flanks of the Russians, infantry armed with spears lined up at the base of the “heel,” and archers were in front. And the princely troop was hidden in ambush. The German knights were met by a cloud of arrows, as the flanks of the “wedge” were forced to press closer to the center.

Nevertheless, the Germans managed to break through the center of the Novgorodian battle order. Some of the Russian infantry even fled. But the knights stumbled on the steep shore of the lake, their inactive formation was mixed and could not build on their success. Meanwhile, the flank groups of the Novgorodians, like ticks, squeezed the German “pig” from the flanks.

In order not to waste any time, Alexander struck with his entourage from behind. The Russian infantry pulled the knights off their horses with hooks and destroyed them. The Germans could not stand the tension in the battle and hurried to escape. For seven kilometers, Alexander’s army pursued the refugees. The ice was broken under the knights, many of them drowned, many were captured.

389 years ago, the trial of Galileo Galilei began in Rome.

He was accused of acknowledging Nicolaus Copernicus’ “false teachings” that “the sun, not the earth, is at the center of the world, and that the latter moves, including orbiting the sun, in a year.”

The researcher was kept in the palace of the Holy Inquisition. But he enjoyed extraordinary privileges – he occupied three rooms, had a servant at his disposal, received packages from friends and also corresponded. The reason for this was that although the open defense of the Copernican system was forbidden, the form of dialogue dispute was not forbidden. During interrogation, Galileo tried to maneuver for a long time, but under threat of torture on June 22, he was forced to renounce “heresy inspired by the devil”.

Photo: pixabay.comwgbiebe

160 years ago, Alexander II issued a decree establishing a hospital for the working population in St. Petersburg. Petersburg.

During the first half of the 19th century, the number of workers in St. Petersburg increased significantly. In this regard, epidemics became more common, and there were not enough places in the city hospitals. In 1842, Emperor Nicholas I ordered the creation of a “permanent hospital for workers with 470 beds” in St. Petersburg. Petersburg. In an attempt to immediately fulfill his command, the city authorities decided to give the newly built prison building as a hospital, but only 150 beds can fit there.

To increase the number of beds, the hospital was placed in several more adapted premises – in rented and purchased houses in different districts of St. Petersburg. But a special building for the hospital was never built. The hospital was spread almost all over the city.

In March 1861, in connection with the reform (liberation of peasants from servitude), the Duma of St. Petersburg decided to establish a hospital for the poor, which was to be built to replace the existing one.

(March 31) On April 12, 1861, a personal decree was issued by Alexander II “On the establishment in St. Petersburg of the Alexander Hospital for the Working Population in memory of February 19, 1861”. According to the project by the architect A. Shtrom, a building was built in 1866 on the Fontanka dike, designed for 400 places. In the following years, several wooden barracks were built for patients on the hospital’s territory, and in 1893 a bronze bust of Alexander II was installed in front of the main façade.

61 years ago, the first man flew into space.

On April 12, 1961, the first person from planet Earth, Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin, on the Vostok spacecraft, which started from the Baikonur cosmodrome, went into outer space and flew in orbit around an artificial Earth satellite.

The launch of the world’s first manned spacecraft was led by chief designer Sergei Pavlovich Korolev. “If only he flew away and returned alive!” said Korolev after the launch of the launch vehicle. This landmark flight lasted 108 minutes.

What the first cosmonaut saw as he went into orbit is evidenced by the entire transcript of his conversation with Earth. After completing a rotation around the earth, the ship’s landing module landed on Soviet territory in the Saratov region.

At an altitude of several kilometers above the earth’s surface, according to the planned program, the cosmonaut threw out and made a parachute landing near the descent vehicle. Gagarin landed at 10:55 local time on soft arable land near Volga beach near the village of Smelovka, Ternovsky district, Saratov region.

The significance of this flight can hardly be overestimated – it opened an era of manned spaceflight and humanity’s exploration of space.

Photo: pixabay.com, Bluesnap

in Orsk.

Let’s look back a few years. Let’s see what the Orsk journalists talked about from the TV screen.

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On this day, the Orthodox Church celebrates the memory of John of the steps – Christian theologian and philosopher, hegumen from the Sinai monastery, who lived in the 600s-700s. John is the author of “The Steps” (from the Old Slavic “Steps”) – a kind of guide to moral self-improvement. In his work, John presented 30 virtues in the form of steps along which a Christian must ascend to the ideal.

On the day in honor of John, the Russian people baked ceremonial cakes – ladders.

Two “sausages” were rolled from the dough, they were laid parallel to each other and pies were placed on top instead of steps. It was intended to bake a ladder for each family member – it was thought that this would bring health to the household. Also, according to custom, these cakes were taken to the church, where they were sprinkled with holy water.

At John of the Ladder, many were afraid to walk around the yard. It was said that this day the brownie is “furious” and does not recognize his family and can therefore harm them. They explained it in different ways. In some areas they thought the old skin would come off the brownie, in others they thought he would marry a witch. Be that as it may, the cake waffled all night to the first roosters, so at sunset the peasants locked all the cattle in the barn, and they sat themselves in the hut and did not even go up to the windows.

Name days on this day are celebrated by Zakhar and Ivan.