Nebula red rectangle
It is located in the constellation Monoceros and is interesting because of its bizarre shape and color. Two stars, connected in the so-called close binary system, cut circles close to each other, exchange mass and generously scatter stellar matter for light years around them. And a white dwarf spins around the nebula.
If the red rectangle was turned towards us with its plane, Earthlings would see a spiral. But the nebula is on an edge towards the Earth and the matter coming out of it is unevenly distributed, so the phenomenon resembles the letter X.
Optical illusions are not uncommon. Galaxies, as well as supermassive black holes, can create not only crosses, but also Einstein rings, depending on the location of the light source. Sometimes lenses are created not from one object, but from several. Together they give rise to a mirage that astronomers call “Smiley” or “Cheshire Cat”.
These are high-energy particles moving in outer space. At the same time, their intensity has increased in recent years. According to Caltech researcher Richard Mewaldt, it increased by 19% in 2019. This value is recorded for the first time in 50 years.
These are the so-called space “children”. Their age ranges from 10 to 300 million years. They pulse, and their regular brightness changes make them ideal landmarks in space. Scientists have found them in the Milky Way.
Astronomers observing the core in infrared light found a remarkably barren “desert” containing no young stars. Several Cepheids are found near the center of the galaxy, and just outside this region a huge dead zone stretches for 8 thousand light years in all directions.
DGSAT I is an ultradiffuse galaxy about the size of our Milky Way, but so thin that it appears transparent, almost invisible. The thing is that the stars in it are scattered very far from each other, and in the chemical composition they have little iron and a lot of magnesium.
Furthermore, DGSAT I is solitary, while other ultradiffuse galaxies are usually found in clusters. Scientists see only one explanation for such properties: the stars that make up this galaxy appeared at a time when conditions in the universe were different from the current ones. The approximate time of its formation is 1 billion years after the Big Bang.
There are galaxies and older ones – appeared about 420 million years after the Big Bang, but you can’t fix them without sophisticated equipment – they are too far away.